Since approximately 43,000 years before today, Homo sapiens, our anatomically modern human ancestors, roamed over the continents from the Middle East to Europe. They reached Central Europe by the way of the Danube Corridor. The first material culture these hunters and gatherers utilized was first identified from the south-western French site of Aurignac, hence referred to as the Aurignacian.Our modern human ancestors displayed the Neanderthals who previously inhabited Europe, and were differently suited to the environment and the climatic conditions of the last ice age. Here, humankind manufactured the first figurative artworks and musical instruments in the form of flutes known in history. Also discovered were the rianthropes; figures of half-human and half-animal, which are indicative of ancient belief systems.The original birthplace for all of these demonstrated modern behaviors is the Swabian Jura in Baden-Württemberg, Germany. Here exist four cave sites: Hohle Fels near Schelklingen and Geißenklösterle near Blaubeuren located in the Aach Valley, and Vogelherd near Niederstotzingen and Hohlenstein-Stadel near Asselfingen located in the Lone Valley, which have yielded the oldest known figurative artworks and musical instruments in the world.